Louisa played a key part in the Civil War, not only furnishing a Company of men, the Louisa Blues, as a part of the 23rd Virginia Infantry of the Confederate forces, but also as the site the largest cavalry battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Trevilian Station, six miles west of the town limits.
This battle occurred on the 11th and 12th of June, 1864 and was the only major Civil War battle in the county. It took place when Sheridan attempted a raid on the Virginia Central Railroad in an attempt to break General Lee's vital supply line from the Valley. Some 13,000 cavalrymen were involved in the battle, of whom 1,619 from both sides were either killed or injured.
Field hospitals were set up at the Trevilians Depot and at Netherland Tavern (left) together with additional churches, private homes the Courthouse and other buildings. "Oakland Cemetery" on West Street in Louisa provided the last resting place for 94 marked but unknown victims of this fierce battle .
Museum space will be provided to the Trevilian Station Battlefield Foundation for use and to display their extensive collection of Civil War artifacts, now in storage or at various members’ homes.
By the end of the Civil War in 1865 more than 625,000 people had been killed. Every state in the nation was impacted by the war, and Virginia more than many. 65% of the battles took place in Virginia , which meant the loss of Virginian men, railroads, crops, livestock, and homes. Confederate money became suddenly worthless, leaving many Southern families penniless and without the slaves they had relied on for labor. Sharecropping sprung up and along with it corruption, scandals, and an unstable economy under President Ulysses S. Grant.
A photograph of the Confederate Monument located on Courthouse Square was taken during the dedication of the monument and the courthouse on August 17, 1905. Pictured with the Monument is Jesse J. Porter. Attendance was estimated at around ten thousand.
The Confederate Monument was rededicated August 2005 (right).